Mineral Concessions: Avoiding Conflict in DR Congo’s Mining Heartland

Publication Year
International Crisis Group

Economic of Conflict Fellow Anouk Rigterink was a principal contributor to this report, along with Hans Hoebeke and Nelleke van de Walle, and Juan Sebastian Lozano provided valuable research assistance.  

In June and July 2019, the Democratic Republic of Congo’s security forces evicted artisanal miners encroaching on two of the country’s largest industrial mining sites in Haut-Katanga and Lualaba provinces. In addition to deaths and injuries, the expulsions caused more than 10,000 artisanal miners to lose their only means of generating income. Avoiding violence around mining sites while reforming this vital sector of the DRC’s economy to improve citizens’ livelihoods is an important challenge for President Félix Tshisekedi. A central goal should be to foster economic opportunities for the artisanal miners. Together, the government and the private sector should create viable new artisanal mining zones. Companies should work to reduce the risk of flare-ups by subcontracting artisanal miners to exploit deposits not central to company operations. The government should ensure that its decrees do not undermine the legal basis for such arrangements, and industry standard setters should make clear that subcontracting does not violate precepts of corporate social responsibility.


International Crisis Group, 2020.

Publication Topic
Economic Development
Publication Type
Policy Report